Not Really! The first color photo was taken during the same year the Civil War began -- 1861!
It was taken by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell who was the first to show the primary colors are red, green, and blue. Entitled "Tartan Ribbon" the photograph was produced to demonstrate that finding.
The first color landscape photo, below, is more impressive. No, it wasn't painted. It's a true color picture taken over 130 years ago by Louis Ducos du Hauron.
All color photography at the time required at least three exposures of the scene using various filters, and then a lot of darkroom work. So color photos were largely impractical and rare until the development of Kodachrome film in 1935. Eliminating the need for multiple exposures, this film finally made color photography a "snap."